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Benchmarks

ORF Zero Scores

The oral reading fluency (ORF) subtask measures how quickly and accurately a student can read. It is a core reading skill measurement because it brings together lower level reading skills (such as decoding and familiar word recognition) with how quickly and easily the student can read a given word (called automaticity).

Acquiring the skills needed to learn how to read vary depending on the complexity of the language. Learning to read is also affected by many factors that vary from place to place. This makes it hard to compare EGRA subtasks across countries. Zero scores are used to compare across languages and contexts because they are logically equal. ORF Zero scores represent the percentage of students who could not read a single word of connected text (nonreaders).

What is a Benchmark?

In education, a benchmark is like a target—a score that measures a student’s performance on a task, which shows that student has a particular level of skill. The benchmark is the marker score for a skill level. We rely on benchmarks to understand and compare student performance in reading, as well as in other subjects. Student performance scores in reading can be compared to reading benchmarks and used to track the performance of a school, district, or whole education system. Benchmarks can also be used to find students, schools, districts, or systems that need more support.

Percentage of Grade 2 Students Who Received an ORF Score of Zero

  • * Indicates assessment outcomes are not nationally representative, but sub-nationally representative
Region Country Year Description Language All Boys Girls
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentAkuapem Twi65%66%63%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentAsante Twi83%81%85%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentDagaare86%86%86%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentDagbani87%86%89%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentDangme58%59%58%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentEnglish51%51%51%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentEwe68%66%69%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentFante81%80%82%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentGa67%69%66%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentGonja77%67%87%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentKasem91%93%89%
AfricaGhana2013Ghana 2013 Early Grade Reading AssessmentNzema83%84%82%
AsiaIndia2018India Start Early: Read in Time Project, Endline Assessment - Uttar Pradesh*Hindi76%73%78%
AsiaIndia2018India Nurturing Early Learning Project, Endline Assessment - Rajasthan*Hindi63%62%64%
AsiaIndia2018India Right to Read, Endline Assessment - Maharashtra*English87%88%87%
AsiaIndia2018India Nurturing Early Learning Project, Endline Assessment - Maharashtra*Marathi4%6%2%
AsiaIndia2018India Scaling Up Early Reading Invention Project, Endline Assessment - Uttarakhand*Hindi30%29%31%
AsiaIndia2018India Scaling Up Early Reading Invention Project, Endline Assessment - Chhattisgarh*Hindi23%26%21%
AsiaIndia2018India Start Early: Read in Time Project, Endline Assessment - Odisha*Oriya39%37%40%
AsiaIndia2018India Teacher Innovations in Practice Project, Endline Assessment - Uttar Pradesh*Hindi70%70%70%
AsiaIndia2018India Nurturing Early Learning Project, Endline Assessment - Karnataka*Kannada53%55%51%
Middle EastIraq2012Iraq, USAID EdData II, Iraq Education Survey Project MAHARATArabic34%37%31%
Middle EastJordan2012Jordan, USAID EdData II, Student Performance in Reading, Baseline SurveyArabic21%25%17%
Middle EastJordan2014Jordan, USAID EdData II, Student Performance in Reading, Endline SurveyArabic11%16%7%
AfricaKenya20152015 Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity (Tusome), Baseline StudyEnglish38%40%36%
AfricaKenya20152015 Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity (Tusome), Baseline StudyKiswahili43%46%41%
AfricaKenya20162016 Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity (Tusome), Midline StudyEnglish12%14%9%
AfricaKenya20162016 Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity (Tusome), Midline StudyKiswahili19%20%18%
AfricaLiberia2013Liberia Teacher Training Program Phase II (LTTP:II), Endline Assessment*English31%26%36%
AfricaMalawi20102010 Malawi Teacher Professional Development Support (MTPDS) Program, National Baseline StudyChichewa94%94%95%
AfricaMalawi20122012 Malawi Teacher Professional Development Support (MTPDS) Program, National Endline StudyChichewa90%89%91%
AfricaMali2015Mali USAID EdData II, National Baseline Assessment - CurriculumBamanankan58%59%57%
AfricaMali2015Mali USAID EdData II, National Baseline Assessment - ClassiqueFrench67%65%69%
Middle EastMorocco2011Morocco, USAID EdData II, Student Performance in Reading *Arabic33%36%29%
AsiaNepal2014Nepal USAID EdData II, National Early Grade Reading Assessment StudyNepali37%35%39%
AsiaNepal20162016 Nepal Early Grade Reading Program (EGRP), Baseline Study*Nepali59%57%61%
AsiaNepal20182018 Nepal Early Grade Reading Program (EGRP), Midline Study*Nepali60%60%60%
AsiaNepal20202020 Nepal Early Grade Reading Program (EGRP), Endline Study*Nepali51%50%52%
AfricaNigeria20132013 Nigerian Northern Education Initiative (NEI) Early Grade Reading Assessment - Sokoto*Hausa94%91%98%
AfricaNigeria20132013 Nigerian Northern Education Initiative (NEI) Early Grade Reading Assessment - Bauchi*Hausa96%94%97%
AfricaNigeria20142014 Nigeria Reading and Access Research Activity (RARA), Early Grade Reading Assessment - Jigawa*Hausa84%82%88%
AfricaNigeria20142014 Nigeria Reading and Access Research Activity (RARA), Early Grade Reading Assessment - Kaduna*Hausa97%97%96%
AfricaNigeria20142014 Nigeria Reading and Access Research Activity (RARA), Early Grade Reading Assessment - Kano*Hausa88%86%91%
AfricaNigeria20142014 Nigeria Reading and Access Research Activity (RARA), Early Grade Reading Assessment - Katsina*Hausa88%88%89%
AsiaPapua New Guinea20112011 Madang Early Grade Reading Assessment, Baseline Survey*English15%12%18%
AsiaPapua New Guinea20122012 East New Britain Early Grade Reading Assessment, Baseline Survey*Kuanua22%25%19%
AsiaPapua New Guinea20122012 National Capital District Early Grade Reading Assessment, Baseline Survey*English38%38%38%
AsiaPapua New Guinea20132013 Western Highlands Province Early Grade Reading Assessment, Baseline Survey*English33%32%34%
AsiaPhilippines20142014 PhilEd Data II: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results - Hiligaynon*Hiligaynon22%23%20%
AsiaPhilippines20142014 PhilEd Data II: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results - Ilokano*Ilokano13%16%9%
AsiaPhilippines20142014 PhilEd Data II: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results - Cebuano*Cebuano8%11%4%
AsiaPhilippines20142014 PhilEd Data II: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results - Maguindanaoan*Maguindanaoan38%45%30%
AsiaPhilippines20152015 Philippines, USAID EdData II, EGRA Four Language Study, Follow-on - Ilokano*Ilokano10%15%4%
AsiaPhilippines20152015 Philippines, USAID EdData II, EGRA Four Language Study, Follow-on - Cebuano*Cebuano5%7%1%
AsiaPhilippines20152015 Philippines, USAID EdData II, EGRA Four Language Study, Follow-on - Maguindanaoan*Maguindanaoan29%32%25%
AsiaPhilippines20152015 Philippines, USAID EdData II, EGRA Four Language Study, Follow-on - Hiligaynon*Hiligaynon25%29%19%
AsiaPhilippines2019All Children Reading–Philippines (ACR-Philippines), 2019 Regional Early Grade Reading Assessment*Bahasa Sug44%49%39%
AsiaPhilippines2019All Children Reading–Philippines (ACR-Philippines), 2019 Regional Early Grade Reading Assessment*Chavacano24%26%22%
AsiaPhilippines2019All Children Reading–Philippines (ACR-Philippines), 2019 Regional Early Grade Reading Assessment*Maguindanawn28%28%28%
AsiaPhilippines2019All Children Reading–Philippines (ACR-Philippines), 2019 Regional Early Grade Reading Assessment*Mëranaw13%18%8%
AfricaTanzania20132013 Tanzania National Baseline Assessment for the 3Rs (Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic)English38%44%32%
AfricaTanzania20132013 Tanzania National Baseline Assessment for the 3Rs (Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic)Kiswahili28%31%25%
AsiaTimor-Leste20092009 Timor-Leste Analysis of Early Grade Reading AcquisitionPortuguese39%36%43%
AsiaTimor-Leste20092009 Timor-Leste Analysis of Early Grade Reading AcquisitionTetum38%37%39%
AsiaTonga2009Tonga Early Grade Reading Assessment (TEGRA), Baseline SurveyTongan9%13%4%
AfricaUganda2015Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), Midterm Study*English78%76%80%
AfricaUganda2015Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), Midterm Study*Lebacoli88%88%87%
AfricaUganda2015Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), Midterm Study*Lugbarati88%85%91%
AfricaUganda2015Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), Midterm Study*Lumasaaba95%93%98%
AfricaUganda2015Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), Midterm Study*Runyoro-Rutooro64%66%62%
AsiaVanuatu2010Vanuatu Early Grade Reading Assessment (VanEGRA), Baseline SurveyEnglish37%42%32%
AsiaVanuatu2010Vanuatu Early Grade Reading Assessment (VanEGRA), Baseline SurveyFrench25%30%20%
Middle EastWest Bank2014West Bank, USAID EdData II, Early Grade Reading Assessment Grade 2, Baseline SurveyArabic22%27%17%
Middle EastYemen2011Yemen, USAID EdData II, Student Performance on the Early Grade Reading Assessment*Arabic42%45%38%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Chitonga88%88%88%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Cinyanja64%65%64%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Icibemba52%49%55%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Kiikaonde74%74%74%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Lunda46%34%57%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Luvale80%82%79%
AfricaZambia20142014 Zambian National Assessment Survey (NAS) of Learning Achievement at Grade 2Silozi56%56%57%
Ghana
2013
Akuapem Twi
All Students: 65%
Boys: 66%
Girls: 63%
Ghana
2013
Asante Twi
All Students: 83%
Boys: 81%
Girls: 85%
Ghana
2013
Dagaare
All Students: 86%
Boys: 86%
Girls: 86%
Ghana
2013
Dagbani
All Students: 87%
Boys: 86%
Girls: 89%
Ghana
2013
Dangme
All Students: 58%
Boys: 59%
Girls: 58%
Ghana
2013
English
All Students: 51%
Boys: 51%
Girls: 51%
Ghana
2013
Ewe
All Students: 68%
Boys: 66%
Girls: 69%
Ghana
2013
Fante
All Students: 81%
Boys: 80%
Girls: 82%
Ghana
2013
Ga
All Students: 67%
Boys: 69%
Girls: 66%
Ghana
2013
Gonja
All Students: 77%
Boys: 67%
Girls: 87%
Ghana
2013
Kasem
All Students: 91%
Boys: 93%
Girls: 89%
Ghana
2013
Nzema
All Students: 83%
Boys: 84%
Girls: 82%
India
2018
Hindi
All Students: 76%
Boys: 73%
Girls: 78%
India
2018
Hindi
All Students: 63%
Boys: 62%
Girls: 64%
India
2018
English
All Students: 87%
Boys: 88%
Girls: 87%
India
2018
Marathi
All Students: 4%
Boys: 6%
Girls: 2%
India
2018
Hindi
All Students: 30%
Boys: 29%
Girls: 31%
India
2018
Hindi
All Students: 23%
Boys: 26%
Girls: 21%
India
2018
Oriya
All Students: 39%
Boys: 37%
Girls: 40%
India
2018
Hindi
All Students: 70%
Boys: 70%
Girls: 70%
India
2018
Kannada
All Students: 53%
Boys: 55%
Girls: 51%
Iraq
2012
Arabic
All Students: 34%
Boys: 37%
Girls: 31%
Jordan
2012
Arabic
All Students: 21%
Boys: 25%
Girls: 17%
Jordan
2014
Arabic
All Students: 11%
Boys: 16%
Girls: 7%
Kenya
2015
English
All Students: 38%
Boys: 40%
Girls: 36%
Kenya
2015
Kiswahili
All Students: 43%
Boys: 46%
Girls: 41%
Kenya
2016
English
All Students: 12%
Boys: 14%
Girls: 9%
Kenya
2016
Kiswahili
All Students: 19%
Boys: 20%
Girls: 18%
Liberia
2013
English
All Students: 31%
Boys: 26%
Girls: 36%
Malawi
2010
Chichewa
All Students: 94%
Boys: 94%
Girls: 95%
Malawi
2012
Chichewa
All Students: 90%
Boys: 89%
Girls: 91%
Mali
2015
Bamanankan
All Students: 58%
Boys: 59%
Girls: 57%
Mali
2015
French
All Students: 67%
Boys: 65%
Girls: 69%
Morocco
2011
Arabic
All Students: 33%
Boys: 36%
Girls: 29%
Nepal
2014
Nepali
All Students: 37%
Boys: 35%
Girls: 39%
Nepal
2016
Nepali
All Students: 59%
Boys: 57%
Girls: 61%
Nepal
2018
Nepali
All Students: 60%
Boys: 60%
Girls: 60%
Nepal
2020
Nepali
All Students: 51%
Boys: 50%
Girls: 52%
Nigeria
2013
Hausa
All Students: 94%
Boys: 91%
Girls: 98%
Nigeria
2013
Hausa
All Students: 96%
Boys: 94%
Girls: 97%
Nigeria
2014
Hausa
All Students: 84%
Boys: 82%
Girls: 88%
Nigeria
2014
Hausa
All Students: 97%
Boys: 97%
Girls: 96%
Nigeria
2014
Hausa
All Students: 88%
Boys: 86%
Girls: 91%
Nigeria
2014
Hausa
All Students: 88%
Boys: 88%
Girls: 89%
Papua New Guinea
2011
English
All Students: 15%
Boys: 12%
Girls: 18%
Papua New Guinea
2012
Kuanua
All Students: 22%
Boys: 25%
Girls: 19%
Papua New Guinea
2012
English
All Students: 38%
Boys: 38%
Girls: 38%
Papua New Guinea
2013
English
All Students: 33%
Boys: 32%
Girls: 34%
Philippines
2014
Hiligaynon
All Students: 22%
Boys: 23%
Girls: 20%
Philippines
2014
Ilokano
All Students: 13%
Boys: 16%
Girls: 9%
Philippines
2014
Cebuano
All Students: 8%
Boys: 11%
Girls: 4%
Philippines
2014
Maguindanaoan
All Students: 38%
Boys: 45%
Girls: 30%
Philippines
2015
Ilokano
All Students: 10%
Boys: 15%
Girls: 4%
Philippines
2015
Cebuano
All Students: 5%
Boys: 7%
Girls: 1%
Philippines
2015
Maguindanaoan
All Students: 29%
Boys: 32%
Girls: 25%
Philippines
2015
Hiligaynon
All Students: 25%
Boys: 29%
Girls: 19%
Philippines
2019
Bahasa Sug
All Students: 44%
Boys: 49%
Girls: 39%
Philippines
2019
Chavacano
All Students: 24%
Boys: 26%
Girls: 22%
Philippines
2019
Maguindanawn
All Students: 28%
Boys: 28%
Girls: 28%
Philippines
2019
Mëranaw
All Students: 13%
Boys: 18%
Girls: 8%
Tanzania
2013
English
All Students: 38%
Boys: 44%
Girls: 32%
Tanzania
2013
Kiswahili
All Students: 28%
Boys: 31%
Girls: 25%
Timor-Leste
2009
Portuguese
All Students: 39%
Boys: 36%
Girls: 43%
Timor-Leste
2009
Tetum
All Students: 38%
Boys: 37%
Girls: 39%
Tonga
2009
Tongan
All Students: 9%
Boys: 13%
Girls: 4%
Uganda
2015
English
All Students: 78%
Boys: 76%
Girls: 80%
Uganda
2015
Lebacoli
All Students: 88%
Boys: 88%
Girls: 87%
Uganda
2015
Lugbarati
All Students: 88%
Boys: 85%
Girls: 91%
Uganda
2015
Lumasaaba
All Students: 95%
Boys: 93%
Girls: 98%
Uganda
2015
Runyoro-Rutooro
All Students: 64%
Boys: 66%
Girls: 62%
Vanuatu
2010
English
All Students: 37%
Boys: 42%
Girls: 32%
Vanuatu
2010
French
All Students: 25%
Boys: 30%
Girls: 20%
West Bank
2014
Arabic
All Students: 22%
Boys: 27%
Girls: 17%
Yemen
2011
Arabic
All Students: 42%
Boys: 45%
Girls: 38%
Zambia
2014
Chitonga
All Students: 88%
Boys: 88%
Girls: 88%
Zambia
2014
Cinyanja
All Students: 64%
Boys: 65%
Girls: 64%
Zambia
2014
Icibemba
All Students: 52%
Boys: 49%
Girls: 55%
Zambia
2014
Kiikaonde
All Students: 74%
Boys: 74%
Girls: 74%
Zambia
2014
Lunda
All Students: 46%
Boys: 34%
Girls: 57%
Zambia
2014
Luvale
All Students: 80%
Boys: 82%
Girls: 79%
Zambia
2014
Silozi
All Students: 56%
Boys: 56%
Girls: 57%