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This 2015 Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) was conducted in grades 1 and 2 in Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, and Maguindanao languages to assess the impact of the national Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Program (MTB-MLE) program. Mother tongue is the native language or first language a child learns to speak.

This 2015 EGRA data collection serves as a snapshot of MTB-MLE implementation in Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, and Maguindanao languages for grades 1 and 2. Data were collected as a comparison to the 2014 EGRA data to assess the impact of the MTB-MLE program on reading skills.

EGRA Subtasks

An EGRA is a test students take that can measure their skill at both pre-reading and reading subtasks. The subtasks used in this assessment are described below.

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

The oral reading fluency (ORF) subtask measures how quickly and accurately a student can read. It is a core component of EGRA because it brings together lower-level reading skills (such as decoding and familiar word recognition) with how quickly and easily the student can read a given word (called automaticity).

Students were given a short, written passage on a topic that was familiar to them. They were asked to read it out loud “quickly but carefully” and were given 60 seconds from when they begin to read. The EGRA administrator timed the student, making note of any mistakes the student made while reading the words aloud. The score is reported as correct words per minute (cwpm).

Letter Sounds

The letter sounds subtask tests students’ ability to recognize letters and speak their corresponding sounds.

Students were presented with a sheet listing letters and asked to read out loud as many as they could, as quickly and carefully as they could, in 1 minute. The EGRA administrator timed the child and recorded the number of correct letter sounds per minute (clspm).

Nonwords

The nonword subtask tests students’ skill in using letter-sound connections to figure out (“decode”) words. While many students learn to memorize a broad range of "sight" words, they need skills to decode less-familiar words.

In this subtask, students were given a list of made-up words that do not exist in the language tested but follow a typical spelling/sound combination of the language. This ensures that the student is not recognizing the whole word and must “sound-out” the non-word in order to correctly read it. The student was asked to read out loud as many words as they could, as quickly and carefully as they could. The EGRA administrator timed the student and recorded the number of correct words per minute (cnwpm).

Reading Comprehension

Comprehension is the main goal of reading—understanding what is read. Comprehension is a complex task that requires some ability in all other reading skills.

This subtask is paired with the ORF subtask. Depending on how much of the ORF passage the student was able to read, the EGRA administrator asked the student questions about the story. The EGRA administrator recorded the number of questions answered correctly.

Year 2015
Grade(s) 1, 2
Language English, Filipino, Ilokano
Assessment EGRA
Assessment Type Regional Assessment
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Regions Included in the Study

Not included in the study
Regions included in the study
Map of Philippines

Key Findings

  • 1/8

    In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), the percentage of students unable to read a single word of connected text in grade 2 was about half the value for students in grade 1 (29% versus 60%).

  • 2/8

    In Ilocos, about 17% of grade 1 students could not read a single word of connected text compared to 10% of grade 2 students. A larger percentage of boys than girls were unable to read a single word of text in both grades (23% vs. 11% in grade 1 and 15% vs. 4% in grade 2).

  • 3/8

    In Western Visayas, just over one-third (36%) of grade 1 students could not read a single word of connected text compared about one-quarter (25%) of grade 2 students.

  • 4/8

    In Central Visayas, about one in five grade 1 students (23%) could not read a single word of connected text compared to 13% of grade 2 students.

  • 5/8

    In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 10, Grade 1 boys 7, Grade 2 girls 26, Grade 2 boys 19.
  • 6/8

    In Ilocos, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 21, Grade 1 boys 14, Grade 2 girls 40, Grade 2 boys 28.
  • 7/8

    In Western Visayas, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 18, Grade 1 boys 10, Grade 2 girls 33, Grade 2 boys 22.
  • 8/8

    In Central Visayas, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 27, Grade 1 boys 17, Grade 2 girls 53, Grade 2 boys 38.

Evaluation Design

Samples of 30-40 teachers and 375-400 students per grade were drawn in each of the four regions—in the Ilocos, Western Visaysas, Central Visayas, and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao regions—from schools that were pre-identified as teaching in the target languages, respectively Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Maguindanaoan. The EGRA data is regionally representative of each of these regions. More detailed information about this implementation of EGRA may be found in Task Order 15: Data for Education Programming in Asia and Middle East Philippines EGRA Four Language Study - 2015 Follow-On report.