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This 2014 Early Grade Reading Assessment was conducted in grades 1 and 2 in Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, and Maguindanao languages during the second year of the national Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) program implementation. Mother tongue is the native language or first language a child learns to speak.

The Philippines Department of Education (DepED) implemented the MTB-MLE program nationwide in the 2012–2013 school year. This 2014 EGRA data collection serves as a snapshot of reading progress for the first year of the MTB-MLE implementation in Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, and Maguindanao languages for grades 1 and 2.

EGRA Subtasks

An EGRA is a test students take that can measure their skill at both pre-reading and reading subtasks. The subtasks used in this assessment are described below.

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

The oral reading fluency (ORF) subtask measures how quickly and accurately a student can read. It is a core component of EGRA because it brings together lower-level reading skills (such as decoding and familiar word recognition) with how quickly and easily the student can read a given word (called automaticity).

Students were given a short, written passage on a topic that was familiar to them. They were asked to read it out loud “quickly but carefully” and were given 60 seconds from when they begin to read. The EGRA administrator timed the student, making note of any mistakes the student made while reading the words aloud. The score is reported as correct words per minute (cwpm).

Initial Sound

The initial sound subtask is a measure of a student’s ability to identify the first sound in a word. It also measures a student’s ability to separate words into sounds and to manipulate those sounds.

Students were told a word verbally and asked to isolate and pronounce the first sound of the word (the initial sound). The EGRA administrator recorded the number of correct letter sounds identified.

Letter Sounds

The letter sounds subtask tests students’ ability to recognize letters and speak their corresponding sounds.

Students were presented with a sheet listing letters and asked to read out loud as many as they could, as quickly and carefully as they could, in 1 minute. The EGRA administrator timed the child and recorded the number of correct letter sounds per minute (clspm).

Nonwords

The nonword subtask tests students’ skill in using letter-sound connections to figure out (“decode”) words. While many students learn to memorize a broad range of "sight" words, they need skills to decode less-familiar words.

In this subtask, students were given a list of made-up words that do not exist in the language tested but follow a typical spelling/sound combination of the language. This ensures that the student is not recognizing the whole word and must “sound-out” the non-word in order to correctly read it. The student was asked to read out loud as many words as they could, as quickly and carefully as they could. The EGRA administrator timed the student and recorded the number of correct words per minute (cnwpm).

Familiar Words

The familiar word reading subtask is similar in format to the nonword reading subtask except that it presents the student with a grid containing words they are expected to be able to read at their grade level and have likely encountered before.

The students were instructed to read aloud as many words as they could in 1 minute. The EGRA administrator timed the student, making note of any mistakes the student made while reading the words aloud. The score is reported as correct words per minute (cwpm).

Listening Comprehension

Listening comprehension is a measure of students’ oral language skills, which also contributes to reading.

In this subtask, the EGRA administrator read a passage to the student, who did not see it. The student then responded to questions or statements read by the EGRA administrator. The listening comprehension score is the total correct answers.

Reading Comprehension

Comprehension is the main goal of reading—understanding what is read. Comprehension is a complex task that requires some ability in all other reading skills.

This subtask is paired with the ORF subtask. Depending on how much of the ORF passage the student was able to read, the EGRA administrator asked the student questions about the story. The EGRA administrator recorded the number of questions answered correctly.

Year 2014
Grade(s) 1, 2
Language Cebuano, Filipino, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Maguindanaoan
Assessment EGRA
Assessment Type Regional Assessment
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Regions Included in the Study

Not included in the study
Regions included in the study
Map of Philippines

Key Findings

  • 1/8

    In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), large proportions of students had difficulty with reading comprehension. Over 80% of grade 1 students and half (50%) of grade 2 students could not answer a single reading comprehension question.

  • 2/8

    In Ilocos, large proportions of students had difficulty with reading comprehension. Almost two-thirds (65%) of grade 1 students could not answer a single reading comprehension question compared to 29% of grade 2 students.

  • 3/8

    In Western Visayas, large proportions of students had difficulty with reading comprehension. Almost two-thirds (64%) of grade 1 students could not answer a single reading comprehension question compared to 31% of grade 2 students.

  • 4/8

    In Central Visayas, almost half of grade 1 students (49%) could not answer a single reading comprehension question. Among grade 2 students, 19% could not answer a single comprehension question.

  • 5/8

    In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 8, Grade 1 boys 5, Grade 2 girls 25, Grade 2 boys 17.
  • 6/8

    In Ilocos, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 18, Grade 1 boys 12, Grade 2 girls 35, Grade 2 boys 26.
  • 7/8

    In Western Visayas, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 17, Grade 1 boys 9, Grade 2 girls 35, Grade 2 boys 28.
  • 8/8

    In Central Visayas, girls read at faster rates compared to boys.

    Bar chart showing average oral reading fluency for boys and girls in grades 1 and 2. Numerical values presented in bar chart: Grade 1 girls 25, Grade 1 boys 18, Grade 2 girls 47, Grade 2 boys 34.

Evaluation Design

EGR Barometer data for the Philippines 2014 PhilEd Data Study EGRA presents a regionally representative snapshot of reading performance in Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Maguindanao languages for grades 1 and 2 in the Ilocos, Western Visaysas, Central Visayas, and ARMM regions of the Philippines. More detailed information about this implementation of EGRA may be found in DEP/AME: Philippines Analytic Support Services for Early Grade Reading (PhilEd Data II): Component 2: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results: A cross-language look at MTB-MLE implementation in the Philippines report.