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Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

The oral reading fluency (ORF) subtask measures how quickly and accurately a student can read. It is a core component of EGRA because it brings together lower-level reading skills (such as decoding and familiar word recognition) with how quickly and easily the student can read a given word (called automaticity).

Students were given a short, written passage on a topic that was familiar to them. They were asked to read it out loud “quickly but carefully” and were given 60 seconds from when they begin to read. The EGRA administrator timed the student, making note of any mistakes the student made while reading the words aloud. The score is reported as correct words per minute (cwpm).


Average Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

Average Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Scores
Gender Grade 2
All Students6.5
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Score Distribution

This chart shows the distribution of the number of words of connected text read correctly per minute (Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) score) by grade 2 students.
Grade 2 Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Scores
Number of Correct Words Per MinutePercent of Students
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate

Zero Scores

Zero scores represent the percentage of students who received a score of zero on a given subtask. Zero scores are often used for comparison purposes because they are logically equivalent across different languages.
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Zero Scores
Gender Grade 2
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate
Seeing high zero scores?
High zero scores (25% and above) sometimes indicate where there is an EGRA subtask ceiling effect (i.e., students have not mastered lower-order reading skills). High zero scores can also help identify schools, districts, or education systems that need more support. Learn more about zero scores.
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"India Teacher Innovations in Practice (TIP) Project, Endline Assessment: Assessment Outcomes," Early Grade Reading Barometer, U.S. Agency for International Development, last modified January 5, 2022,

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India Teacher Innovations in Practice (TIP) Project, Endline Assessment: Assessment Outcomes. (n.d.) Early Grade Reading Barometer.

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