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2013 Pakistan Reading Project (PRP), Baseline Study

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

The oral reading fluency (ORF) subtask measures how quickly and accurately a student can read. It is a core component of EGRA because it brings together lower-level reading skills (such as decoding and familiar word recognition) with how quickly and easily the student can read a given word (called automaticity).

Students were given a short, written passage on a topic that was familiar to them. They were asked to read it out loud “quickly but carefully” and were given 60 seconds from when they begin to read. The EGRA administrator timed the student, making note of any mistakes the student made while reading the words aloud. The score is reported as correct words per minute (cwpm).



Average Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Scores
Average Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Score
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate


This chart shows the distribution of the number of words of connected text read correctly per minute (Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) score) by Azad Jammu Kashmir students.
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Score Distribution
Number of Correct Words Per Minute
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate

Zero Scores

Zero scores represent the percentage of students who received a score of zero on a given subtask. Zero scores are often used for comparison purposes because they are logically equivalent across different languages.
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Zero Scores
# Indicates too few cases for reliable estimate

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Chicago Manual of Style:

"2013 Pakistan Reading Project (PRP), Baseline Study: Assessment Outcomes," Early Grade Reading Barometer, U.S. Agency for International Development, last modified January 5, 2022,

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2013 Pakistan Reading Project (PRP), Baseline Study: Assessment Outcomes. (n.d.) Early Grade Reading Barometer.

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