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Stages of Reading Development and EGRA Subtasks

Stage Learner EGRA Subtasks
0 Birth to Grade 1
Emergent Literacy
  • Gains control of oral language
  • Relies heavily on pictures in text
  • Pretends to read
  • Recognizes rhyme
  • Concepts about print
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Listening comprehension
1 Beginning Grade 1
  • Grows awareness of sound/
    symbols relationships
  • Focuses on printed symbols
  • Attempts to break code of print
  • Uses decoding to figure out words
  • Letter naming
  • Letter sounds
  • Syllable naming
  • Nonsense word reading
2 End of Grade 1 to
End of Grade 3
Confirmation and Fluency
  • Uses reading as a tool for learning
  • Reading strategies
  • Expands reading vocabulary
  • Comprehends from a singular
    point of view
  • Paragraph reading (Oral Reading
    Fluency) with Comprehension
  • Dictation
3 End of Grades 4 to 8
Learning the New
(Single Viewpoints)
  • Develops fluency in reading
  • Recognizes patterns in words
  • Checks for meaning and sense
  • Knows a stock of sight words
4 Secondary and Early
Higher Education
Multiple Viewpoints
  • Analyzes what is read
  • Reacts critically to texts
  • Deals with layers of facts and concepts
  • Comprehends from multiple
    points of view
5 Late Higher Education
and Graduate School
A Worldview
  • Decodes a well-rounded view
    of the world through reading