Five Basic Skills Required to Read Well
In almost any alphabetic language in which print can be decoded—broken apart mentally into sounds—being able to read well requires a grasp of five basic skills (National Reading Panel, 2000).
1. Phonetic awareness. Focusing on, manipulating, breaking apart, and putting together sounds orally 2. Phonics or "alphabetics". Linking written letters to their sounds forming spelling patterns. 3. Fluency. Acheiving speed, accuracy, and expression in reading 4. Comprehension. Understanding the concepts read or heard. 5. Vocabulary. Knowing words (both oral and written) and their meaning.